Norway: Horisont Energi And Neptune Energy Sign Project Agreement For The Ccs Project Errai

The views expressed are these of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the publisher. The impact of the crash also let some of the heat that was trapped inside Uranus escape. A Hubble Space Telescope view showing Uranus surrounded by its four key rings and 10 of its 17 known satellites. On Thursday, Ukrainian National Security continue reading this.. Advisor Oleksiy Danilov told CNN that the strike on the Moskva was a really crucial mission for his country’s military and vowed there would be much more such dramatic actions.

The platform carries more than 100,000 positions every day, about $600bn in notional liquidity, in asset classes such as Credit, Prices and Emerging Markets. Neptune is made use of by 80 get-side firms globally, managing in excess of $50 trillion in AUM. Oh, and the Frost of the title is a big white-and-red bird that gets a few in-flight close-ups, but is rather certainly just becoming held by an individual moving in sync with the camera. It is handmade components like that which tends to make Neptune Frost much more than just the recitation of post-colonial tracts and cool music, but a spirited, one particular-of-a-sort film worth checking out. A study on the phenomenon published Monday in the Planetary Science Journal.

Since arriving at the delta, Perseverance has been testing different rocks to see if they’re a good candidate for the initially core sample in the location. The very first few rocks the mission group thought of either fractured too effortlessly or had surfaces that have been also rough to safely location the rover’s drill. It’s not precisely a beach body, but the primary body of NASA’s Europa Clipper spacecraft was delivered in June to the agency’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. Over the next two years, JPL engineers and technicians will finish assembling the craft by hand prior to testing it to make certain it can withstand the journey to Jupiter’s icy moon Europa. The semisubmersible Deepsea Yantai, operated by Odfjell Drilling, drilled the most important-bore (35/9-16S) and side-track (35/9-16A).

Infrared images of Uranus (1.6 and 2.2 microns) obtained on Aug. 6, 2014, with adaptive optics on the 10-meter Keck telescope. The white spot is an exceptionally substantial storm that was brighter than any feature ever recorded on the planet in the 2 the original source.two-micron band. The cloud rotating into view at the reduce-appropriate limb grew into a storm that was so large, it was visible even to amateur astronomers at visible wavelengths.

China is contemplating a Voyager-like mission to interstellar space that would launch in 2024 and make a Neptune flyby in 2038. NASA is thinking about a low-expense Neptune mission named TRIDENT that would execute a single flyby of Triton, mapping the moon’s surface and exploring no matter whether it has a subsurface ocean. The existence of such an ocean would open up possibilities for habitable worlds quite distant from their stars. Wolszczan, who still searches for exoplanets as a professor at Penn State, says we’re opening an era of discovery that will go beyond merely adding new planets to the list. The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite , launched in 2018, continues to make new exoplanet discoveries. Starship could also be a better way to launch giant space telescopes that can observe the universe.

George Mason will be hazardous as long as they have possible conference player of the year Josh Oduro, along with a few other solid pieces. Familiar face Archie Miller and his Rhode Island squad could surprise people today with a strong transfer class, featuring Freeman and perhaps UNC transfer Antony Harris by the time conference play starts up. More than the course of its mission to the Red Planet, the NASA probe changed our view of Mars, revealing it to be barren and crater-filled and not teeming with life. Above, taken on October two, 2013, shows Mercury’s surface in exquisite detail and consists of sharp views of each primary and secondary craters. MESSENGER took more than 250,000 images whilst investigating the Sun’s nearest planet. From grainy pics sent back by NASA’s 1960s Mariner probes to the most current from Webb Telescope, our views of the planets have vastly enhanced over time.

When the north node contacts birth planets, opportunities manifest. Our 24-hour clock is based on the average length of the solar day. Solar noon on Sept. 14 to solar noon on Sept. 15, 2022, will be the shortest solar day of the year, 23 hours, 59 minutes, and 38.6 seconds lengthy.

Luckily, these highly effective eclipses are also bringing exhilarating inspiration and possibilities for her to attain newfound aspirations in the course of this complete time, as well. Final to mention is that Jupiter, the planet of miracles, will spin in her sector of correct adore, creativity and fertility starting Might 2023 for more than a year — bringing joy and expansion about all of these themes. Nevertheless, her Saturn return starts toward 2025, so this will be however one more period exactly where she re-evaluates her path and decides exactly where she will location her roots for the coming decades ahead.

With cosmic charmer Venus touring Libra considering that September 29, feelings have ballooned to bigger-than-life proportions. Did you judge someone’s notion also promptly final month while Mercury was retrograde , or write them off simply because you did not see eye to eye? Justifiable factors notwithstanding, reconsider your really hard-line perspective over the next few weeks.

Its structure is also distinctive, applying triples as an alternative of direct edge hyperlinks between nodes. A triple comprises a subject (say, ‘Publication’), along with a predicate (‘Name-is), and an object (‘Register’). Nodes each continue reading this.. have global identifiers that can be utilized universally to combine different graphs.

Even if you never have any Pisces placements in your birth chart , absolutely everyone can benefit from taking a web page out of the Pisces book of fashion. Some scientists thought that the theory was a joke when they 1st heard it, in element simply because the star is dark or so faint as to be invisible. A survey at the turn of the millennium failed to detect added stars that would account for Nemesis, and analysis of craters on Earth failed to offer any evidence for the star. Yet the final laugh was with the original theory – a 2017 paper argued that the Sun was probably part of a binary system at the time of its formation. Such a star would have separated over four billion years ago, which means it would not be responsible for a perceived cycle of mass extinctions, but it suggests that there was a Nemesis lengthy ago. “Two fields are moving quickly in astrophysics. They are exoplanets and cosmology, which definitely comes down to the question of God and life, so where does the universe come from and where do we come from,” mentioned Leconte.

“Temperature variations could be related to seasonal alterations in Neptune’s atmospheric chemistry, which can alter how proficiently the atmosphere cools. “Our information cover much less than half of a Neptune season, so no one was expecting to see significant and speedy alterations.” By analysing the information, the researchers have been able to reveal a additional total image of trends in Neptune’s temperatures than ever prior to.

Poppy Postbox By Ruby Bridgewood From Stgabriels High College

Stablemate Clan Des Obeaux, a dual King George winner and improved than his margin of defeat when second last year, will not be joining him. He’s at present undergoing box rest soon after damaging a suspensory tendon. A scan early in the new year will identify whether or not he comes back for the Betfair Bowl at Aintree next April or sits out the entire season. With cheekpieces reapplied and just after reportedly slipping into a couple of early obstacles, runner-up Kemboy ultimately created a superior round of jumping than is normally the case but final season’s form recommended a horse starting on the downgrade. The next stop for him is the Savills Chase more than Christmas at Leopardstown – a course at which he consistently runs greater than most.

But exactly where coastal grandmother names are preppy and refined, cottagecore names are rustic and rugged believe cottage in the woods versus a cottage in the Hamptons. Think a wool sweater and a cup of herbal tea from the garden and hand-hewn logs for the fire a hearty soup bubbling in an iron kettle and bread baking in a wood-burning stove. FACET, a Spanish company, is deemed one particular of the champions of sustainability in this sector and a considerable driving force in accountable manufacturing. Together with Tracemark and Greenland Ruby, FACET is launching a collection of the most sustainable classic jewelry in the globe with the oldest rubies to date . Rehabilitation – accretion and amortizationinclude depreciation on the assets connected to the rehabilitation provision of gold operations and accretion on the rehabilitation provision of gold operations. Typical realized gold price tag represents the sales cost of gold per ounce before deducting mining royalties, treatment and refining charges and gains or losses derived from the offtake agreement with Orion.

“If you enable incentives – at times it’s dollar incentives, often it is maybe extra expedient improvement or processing timelines or what ever – that performs,” he mentioned. He pointed to Maryland’s neighborhood solar system you could look here, which involves tax and other incentives for brownfields projects. His colleague Jon Amores, the utility’s state government affairs manager, acknowledged that consumers could possibly be interested in option types of power if they could save funds.

The stones are also said to bring other rewards such as balance, clarity and abundance. To this day, jewellers continue to add possibilities to the contemporary birthstone chart too. Other individuals formed from liquids filtered into cracks and pockets in rock, like opal. I’ve been pondering of obtaining another one particular created for me to put on, a reminder of the a single that sits unworn, unable to fulfill our heirloom aspirations.

” described the Carousel Club as a ‘f–ing classy joint’ and patrons who challenged his opinion from time to time got thrown down the stairs,” Gary Cartwright wrote in Texas Month-to-month in 1975. There, Ruby became known as a hot-headed nightclub owner and a pal to the police who frequented his places. By 1963, Ruby had attempted on a string of small business ventures, none of them pretty prosperous.

In 2021, the necklace was estimated to be worth $2 million dollars. Lately, De Beers has been experimenting with anodized titanium and aluminum and pavé diamonds as foils for its white and fancy diamonds. A seven-piece parure referred to as Optical Wonder pays tribute to the operate of Victor Vasarely, leader of the Op Art movement, in either black and white or pink, as on a ring set with a fancy intense pink diamond from the house’s Organic Works of Art collection. The 77-piece collection, which marks the 90th anniversary of Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel’s first foray into higher jewelry, reprises celestial themes in chapters named Comet, Moon, and Sun. All of those converge, having said that, in the Allure Celeste necklace, anchored by a 55.55-carat oval sapphire nestled in a diamond crescent moon.

An e mail sent to the spokesperson of the corporate affairs ministry on Tuesday remained unanswered. Parallelly, function is going on in revamping IBC for speedy admission of situations and creation of corporate rescue plans while guaranteeing lenders are in a position to realize maximum value for their investments in the distressed firm. The urgency on improving outcomes of the domestic bankruptcy regime also stems from the reality that its shortcomings were flagged by the parliamentary standing committee on finance led by Bharatiya Janata Celebration leader Jayant Sinha in August. If players are following the quest “Nature & Nurture” in Disney Dreamlight Valley, they will have encountered Scar in the Elephant Graveyard of the Sunlit Plateau.

Hailing from India, Jeo has grown up dreaming about a red-colored Porsche 911. This fascination led him to study extra about vehicles and their functionality in his automotive engineering days from the previous. His passion for writing about vehicles directed him towards blogging, which he has been undertaking read full article for pretty much a decade. Let’s come to the principal element which catches all the focus in this car – the rims.

Net cash offered by financing activities totaled $425.three million for the third quarter, compared to net money utilised in financing activities of $163. million for the prior year period. The change was mostly due to a net draw of $450 million on the Company’s revolving credit facility in the third quarter compared to a net repayment of $100. million during the prior year period. Cost of sales is particular to our stream agreements and is the outcome of our obtain of gold, silver and copper for a money payment. 1 Adjusted net earnings, adjusted net income per share and adjusted EBITDA margin are non-GAAP financial measures.

A round emerald surrounded by diamonds, with the alternative to dangle a further Cambridge emerald pendant. The Queen wore pieces of this set for quite a few Remembrance events as effectively as Margaret Thatcher’s funeral. This colourful style was a different gift from the Queen’s parents, this time to mark the birth of Charles. Elizabeth was provided this hefty diamond-encrusted lily design click this link when she received the Freedom of the City of London. She went on to put on it a bunch, most notably for the Queen Mother’s 101st birthday and the private service for Princess Margaret. She wore the set numerous, a lot of instances for the duration of her reign, specially on anniversaries connected to her father’s memory, such as on the date of her Jubilee.

It is a necklace set with uncommon Burmese rubies, old-mine reduce diamonds, and organic pearls that was crafted circa 1830 and remains in perfect situation. “There may in no way be another chance to personal 1 of the French crown jewels,” says Bill Rau, the company’s president. He recently acquired the jewel from an elderly couple in Geneva and he does not know of any other French crown jewels that remain in private hands currently.

In this globe, humans have the opportunity to play out their greatest fantasies and darkest fears, all of which are designed and managed by Dream. These entities Dream has constructed stay within the confines of his realm… generally. “It’s actually crucial for establishing identity and worth, which are the crucial principles for cementing customer trust and loyalty,” Jane Collins, a senior strategist at the trend-forecasting organization WGSN, mentioned by phone from London. Its name comes from a term for a storm-strength wind, a further nod to sailing. “It symbolizes courage, determination, to under no circumstances give up,” Mr. Leung mentioned.

Emerald Gemstone Positive Aspects Of Emerald Panna Stone, Power, Properties

Film star and icon Grace Kelly was offered a 12 carat emerald-reduce diamond engagement ring from Prince Rainier and everybody knows about Elizabeth Taylor’s enjoy of emerald jewelry. 1 of her husbands, Richard Burton, gave her the emerald and diamond brooch as an engagement present, and she wore it with an emerald necklace he gave her as a wedding present. Some of the emeralds in Taylor’s set had been also from the Grand Duchess Vladimir in Russia.

The Emerald is identified to possess a lot of advantages which includes a heightened intuition and superior vision which awakens our internal capacity to foretell events of the future and reveal its hidden meaning. Iron ores and lead are credited to quite a few provinces, and platinum has been located in Esmeraldas, where emerald mines have been worked ever considering the fact that the Spanish conquest. 1 was a peaceful image of a road alongside the lake, sapphire water on the appropriate and emerald forest on the left. This view of a suburb with emerald green lawns is especially resonant in drought-stricken 2015. Emeralds in antiquity had been mined in Ancient Egypt at places on Mount Smaragdus given that 1500 BC, and India and Austria due to the fact at least the 14th century AD. The Egyptian mines have been exploited on an industrial scale by the Roman and Byzantine Empires, and later by Islamic conquerors.

Treatment options are accomplished to repair fractures and fissures and, to a degree to shield them. Treatment options can substantially enhance the colour of an emerald. The inclusions are mostly mica and liquid-filled cavities. At their ideal, the colour of these Emeralds is said to resemble that of stones from Sandawana and Colombia. When it comes to acquiring Emeralds, it is significant to understand that practically all stones have been treated with some variety of oil or clarity enhancer. Checkout the articles beneath to discover more about Emeralds.

For the duration of the 1930s, the gemstones, aquamarine and amethyst, have been also particularly common. Rose gold and green gold had been in high demand, and 3-dimensional, bold styles have been commonplace in the fashion globe. Emeralds normally contain lots of cracks, fissures, and inclusions — for this reason, most emeralds are immersed in oil to reduce the visibility of the inclusions and improve clarity. Emeralds can be reduce into many shapes, or even carved, but, simply because they are brittle, they are frequently reduce into a rectangular shape. The ‘emerald cut’ is made to minimise breakages of the crystal in corners, while emphasising the colour of the gem.

On the other hand, the conquerors looted their jewelry and enslaved them. It took fifty years for the Spanish to use high-grade Columbian emeralds from Muzo mines. Emeralds had been first talked about in papyrus as the rarest stones, dating back to 6000 years. Emerald finds its spot in the book of Revelations in the Holy Bible. According to tales about King Arthur, emeralds had been the judgment stone also.

Emerald is mainly worn for Organization growth, Loved ones & Overall health. Emerald landmines have been identified in Columbia, Zambia, Brazil, Russia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, United States, and Australia. Being very soggy and utterly settled in green and blue tints, Columbian emeralds are known to be great than other origins, supported by Zambian emeralds. In the course of the oil therapy, emeralds are soaked in hot cedar oil. Cedar oil has the similar rating on the refractive index, producing it a good selection for emeralds. The hot oil is intended to soak into cracks, fractures and fissures.

While inclusions can add to an emerald’s general aesthetic, they do make them more susceptible to cracking if knocked against a challenging surface or subjected to intense temperature transform. Most emeralds are, therefore, treated by filling cracks with oil to stop chipping. Consequently, an emerald ought to in no way be cleaned with chemicals or an ultrasound machine. Instead, simply use warm water to rinse away any dirt, let to dry and then rub with a soft cloth. You can also coat emeralds with baby oil as an additional precaution to aid stop the stone from becoming overly brittle. Our guide to caring for emerald rings will inform you every thing you will need to know about seeking following these soft valuable gemstones, and their settings.

Emeralds are recognized for their auspicious green hue and versatility. They are featured as pendant necklaces, statement rings, earrings, bracelets, and even crown jewels. If you’re not really in the market for a statement tiara, have anAmerican Gem Society gemologisthelp you pick the suitable gemstone and setting for your budget. You may possibly choose to opt for a smaller sized, a lot more intensely colored gem over a bigger, lighter one particular, although it all comes down to private jewelry and color preference in the finish. The most sought soon after emeralds have a pure green colour with an intense color saturation that is evenly spread across the stone with no visible colour variations. Also a lot blue or as well significantly yellow will reduce the worth considerably.

Your future is bright and there are to be a lot of pleased times ahead. With the benefit of extra patience, understanding and inspiration this gemstone will attract prosperity in small business. Purchasing for beautiful jewellery treats for special occasions, birthdays, anniversaries and just due to the learn the facts here now fact gifting? All jewellery comes in its personal luxury present box and add complimentary gift wrapping and handwritten notes at checkout. Breaking the bank, discover why demi-fine is the very best way to build a lasting jewellery collection you can wear on repeat.

Like all regions listed on the most existing version of the Emerald Ash Borer Regulated Regions of Canada map published by CFIA. Perdue is particular that her late husband, whose obituary in 2005 requested that properly-wishers donate to their regional meals pantry in lieu of sending flowers, would like the idea. He had it cut and set into a ring, then stored away in a safe her latest blog in his Salisbury, Md., residence till he gave it to Mitzi Perdue as an engagement present in 1988. He’s continuing the family enterprise by running searches out of Crucial West for the remaining $500 million of registered treasures they think to still be scattered across the ocean floor.

These “fancy” shapes are much less complicated, less difficult to cut, and much less pricey than round shapes and cuts. Some individuals favor an emerald instead of a diamond for an engagement ring. This does not normally result in a reduced expense as high-top quality emeralds can be extremely highly-priced. Emerald stone is one particular in each and every of the first stunning and wonderful gemstones found on Earth. It is a excellent gift for an individual born in the month of Might as nicely as the standard gemstone for the astrological indicators of Cancer.

Photo courtesy of liveauctioneers.com and Zain Gems and Jewels Co., Ltd.Other notable sources of emeralds include things like Afghanistan and China. The Egyptian mines that supplied Cleopatra’s passion have extended considering that been played out. Nevertheless, nowadays the African continent is second only to South America in production, with mines in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, and Nigeria. Every of these locales usually produces a specific colour, size, and clarity. Given that 2016, Ethiopia has also developed some high-excellent emeralds with grass green to blue-green colors that do not will need oil treatment options.

In Bedrock Edition, vindicators and pillagers spawned from raids can drop 0–1 emeralds. Depending on difficulty, vindicators and pillagers spawned from raids also have a possibility of dropping additional emeralds. There is a 65% possibility sneak a peek at this web-site. of dropping on effortless and normal, and an 80% chance of dropping on hard.

Essential Metals And Uncommon Earths Ifpen

But strength is not the only factor this uncommon earth magnet has going for it. SM Magnetics is an innovative and options-oriented magnetics enterprise. Our knowledge and experience is in permanent magnets and magnetic assemblies, but our ability to speedily fully grasp your application and requirements goes beyond your typical magnetics organization. Samarium magnets were initially found in 1966, and even though they were the world’s strongest magnets for nearly two decades, they’ve fallen somewhat out of favor because the introduction of neodymium magnets. Their brittleness, larger cost, and weaker magnetism limit their attractiveness for quite a few applications. Nonetheless, samarium magnets can aid in unique tasks due to the element’s qualities.

It remains to be observed whether these investments will pay off in creating a lot more resilient, finish-to-finish domestic important mineral provide chains. Inside metals, copper and gold collectively accounted for 66% of the total, followed by iron ore (13%) and zinc (7%). Alumina has applications in multiple industries, like plastics, cosmetics, and chemical production. But of course, the majority of it is shipped to smelters to make aluminum. Nonetheless, when two or far more magnets are swallowed, they can seriously harm internal organs.

Chinese leaders, citing domestic desires and environmental effects, have in the past restricted the export of uncommon-­earth supplies by means of such means as licenses, taxes, and out-and-out quotas. Their “rarity” stems from that truth that they are found in low concentrations, up to a few hundred components per million by weight, at most. That makes it tricky and therefore highly-priced to separate them from surrounding substances into useful goods.

Sign up to acquire our Resources Radio podcast and On the Concerns newsletter every week. What you do is you essentially hook them up to a fuel cell and you run it backwards and it runs fine backwards and it creates this fuel. For me, I’m sure fuel cell authorities and lovers out there are screaming that, yeah, this has been the case the whole time.

LONDON, Oct The uncommon earth sector is most likely to face additional substitution unless production ramps up sharply to close a looming provide gap, an sector executive has warned. The initial magnets applying the uncommon earths neodymium and scandium were developed only in 1982, but their discovery has revolutionised all sorts of technologies. But the optical properties of the rare earths do a lot more than just deter forgers. The distinctive green light in a television or personal computer screen is generated employing terbium, whilst the red colour is created by a combination of europium and yttrium .

Inefficiencies in the industry have demonstrated this point, as have other unknowns, which when brought to light, can result in a material modify in share value . For instance, in spite of the important size of Iluka, their demerger of the company’s former royalty business, Deterra Royalties, resulted in a substantial reduction in share cost and valuation. List of 53 advanced uncommon earth projects belonging to 49 organizations in 16 countries.

In Australia, providers use these groupings from time to time and ordinarily present data on which elements are included in each and every. It should really also be noted that businesses normally report REE content material as rare earth oxides and yttrium oxide . Geoscience Australia also reports the rare earths inventory as REO+Y2O3. Conversion variables must be applied to every single individual REO to figure out REE metal content material. Low-grade sources of rare earth elements , for instance from industrial waste, ordinarily include several rare earth components and other metals mixed together.

In Yulin, more than 10 protesters had been detained in May well 2018 when villagers resisted the exact same company’s attempt to mine a lot more uncommon earth. In one particular video, a protester walks up to a mine worker wearing an orange challenging hat with “Chinalco” written on it. The skyrocketing price tag is naturally not conducive to the improvement of the complete magnet sector.

Overviews physical, chemical and biological technologies for successful treatment of water, air, soils and sediments contaminated with unique rare earth components. Other efforts were produced by US President Joe Biden with his $2tr infrastructure legislation that seeks, amongst other factors, to rebuild the country’s semiconductor business. Hence, such market place trends are probably to drastically impact the uncommon earth components marketplace in the coming years. In 2021, around 85% of automakers had been view employing neodymium-incorporated permanent magnet motors, and there are projections that the automotive demand for uncommon earth will rise by 25% in 2022. The use of permanent magnet synchronous generators enables for more effective and trusted operation compared with conventionally wound rotors that were subject to frequent slip-ring/brushes failures and losses. The downside to such technologies is the higher capital expense, with magnet rates ranging from usually €50 to €100 per kilogram.

Frederick Kozak is a Skilled Engineer with extensive oil and gas, and international business enterprise encounter and has a lot more than 25 years involved in capital markets … Hence, the benefits portray the situation in a provided period , and could thus endure variations more than time. Global sales of EVs more than doubled in 2021to 6.6 million, a lot more than tripling their market share from two years earlier, according to the International Energy Agency.

” It is a matter of viewpoint Mountain Pass is bigger than many desert towns, but the entire factor would match conveniently inside any neighborhood in Vegas or Phoenix. But if the camps apprehend the circumstance differently — a confident “we will dig” versus a fretful “we have to dig” — they share two standard assumptions. Both are specific that America’s chief prospects for creating power-crucial components lie in the West, the nation’s mineral breadbasket.

In January 2021, the US government and Lynas Corporation agreed to construct a commercial light uncommon earths separation plant in the US, with the US Department of Defense expected to supply $30m in funding and Lynas contributing a further $30m. As soon as operational, the plant will generate about 5,000t of rare earth items annually, like 1,250t of neodymium-praseodymium, and will use feedstock material from a cracking and leaching operation the firm is developing at Kalgoorlie-Boulder. Some rare earth oxide facilities elsewhere have built permanent, secure facilities to store such waste, according to Julie Klinger, a geographer and professional in rare earths mining at Boston University other people are secretive about what they do with it. If the West is to grow to be a big part of the provide chain of REEs, it should come across powerful strategies of carefully and economically managing the waste. Mount Weld Central Lanthanide Deposit , which is situated inside an ancient collapsed volcano in Western Australia, is 1 of the highest-grade uncommon earth deposits in the world and is the largest rare earths mine outdoors China. Through the second quarter of 2021, it developed 1,393t of neodymium-praseodymium, up from 775t through the very same quarter of 2020.

It is a special English-language discovered journal that publishes works on a variety of aspects of fundamental theory and applied science in the field of rare earths . The journal accepts original high-top quality original investigation papers and review articles with inventive content material, and full experimental information. It represents higher academic requirements and new progress in the RE field. Due to the benefit of abundant RE resources of China, the study on RE develops very actively, and papers on the most up-to-date progress in this field emerge each year.